In India Organ Donation and Transplantation is governed by an Act of Parliament i.e. Transplantation of Human Organs Act-1994. The same was adopted by the Orissa Legislative Assembly (OLA) in Aug. 1998. The necessary rules for constituting the Appropriate Authority and Authorization Committee were put in place in May 2001 only. But no rules were framed to formalize Brain Death and thus no ground was prepared to go for Cadaveric Transplantation.
When the rest of the World is trying to increase the percentage of Non Heart Beating Donation (NHBD) compared to Beating Heart Donation, most parts of India is not even aware of the existence of such a treatment for the people with end stage organ failure. When the average rate of Deceased Donor Transplantation (DDT) is 35 per Million in Spain, it is not even one in India.
With this background and with the aim of promoting DDT in Orissa, when MOTHER started its activities in May 2007, it confronted the following scenario:
1. Ignorance on the part of not only the policy makers and policy implementers, but also on the part of Doctors.
2. Lack of awareness and appreciation among the people.
3. Social and religious superstition among almost all sections of the society. 4. Absence of proper legal frame work to facilitate DDT(Deceaed Donor Transplantation).
5. Lack of suitable Hospital facility. No Govt. Hospital has the facility yet.
6. In most of the Govt. Hospitals, the dialysis machines were not operational since their procurement in 2004.
7. Lack of confidence in the ability of local surgeons and especially on the private Hospitals.
In order to overcome the above, we adopted the following steps:
1. Distributed IEC (Information, Education & Communication) materials to as many people possible. Nearly 20,000 leaflets have been distributed so far.
2. Organized events and mass rally to propagate the concept.
3. Inserted articles in Oriya dailies.
4. Tried to reach the people through T.V. telecast both on Door Darshan and local channel. (Five telecasts so far).
5. Had meeting with H.E., the Governor of Orissa, and the Hon'ble Chief Minister. Had Several meetings with the Hon'ble Health Ministers and Health Secretaries.
Results of our Initiatives
1. Starting of a 5 beded ICU in Capital hospital in May 2010. Eleven more beds in ICU have been added on dt. 31-05-2014. However 14 more beds in ICU are required to be added as per norms.
2. Operationalisation of the dialysis unit of Capital hospital in Sept. 2010. It may be noted that the equipment was procured in 2004 and was lying idle.
3. Even though Organ donation and Transplantation has been made legal in our country by an Act of Parliament, i.e Transplantation of Human Organs Act-94, the same was adopted by the Odisha Legislative Assembly(OLA) in Aug.1998 and the necessary committes and rules were put in place in May 2001. However they omitted a very important issue, i.e declaration of brain death. MOTHER has got it legalized only in Nov.2009 to facilitate cadaveric donation and Transplantation.
4. Kalinga hospital started Kidney Transplantation in Nov.2002 till Nov.2007 they performed only 29 Transplants in 5 Years. Because of our awareness program people came to know of Transplantation and that has also helped many people to devlop their confidence, so that during the last 4 years Kalinga hospital has performed more than 200 Transplant.
5. The four years of persuasion and persevering efforts of MOTHER starting in Dec'2007, strongly supplemented by an order dt 20-08-2010 of the Hon'ble High Court in a Civil writ petition no 11218/2010 to the Govt. of Odisha to start Transplant surgery unit in all the three Govt. Medical Colleges, has culminated in the launching of the Kidney Transplant facilities in SCB Medical Collge, to start with, by the Hon'ble Minister on date 03-12-2011.
6. At the behest of MOTHER, Govt. Of Odisha has requisitioned Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar to undertake a study as to how Mercury is entering into the blood of the people of Narasinghapur (Badamba) where nearly 200 people expired in 2010 due to End Stage Kidney Failure.
7. Adoption of Transplantation of Human Organs ( Amendment) Act-2011, by ODISHA Legislative Assembly, as nofied by Govt. of India in Sept. 2011 since Jan. 2016. But the Transplantation Advisory Committee is yet to be constituted.
8. In order to facilitate human dead body donation to Medical Colleges for anatomical dissection by the medical students, Orissa Anatomy Act-1975 has been suitably amended as Odisha Anatomy (amendmemnt) Act-2013.
In sum, even though the deceased donor kidney Transplantation was attempted in 1988 in Calcutta, and deceased donor Liver Transplantation was attempted there in Jan 2010, no other place of Eastern India has ever attempted for DDT(Deceaed Donor Transplantation) yet.
9 MOTHER has been requesting the
Govt. of Odisha yo establish an exclusive Universisty for the Health Sciences encompassing all branches of Health Care like allopathy, Homoeopathy,Unani, Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Nursing and Dentistry. Govt. has approved the same, but the necessary Bill is yet to be introduced in the Assembly. The necessary bill has been approved by the Odisha Legislative Assembly in September 2021. Gazette Notification of Rules for implementing the same is awaited.
10. SOTTO (State Organ and Tissue Transplatation Organisation)
Initially Govt. of India (GOI) stipulated to start SOTTO in the respective capital only, and thus the application of Govt of Odisha to start SOTTO in SCB Medical College was rejected by GOI in 2017. MOTHER could persuade/ Convince the Health Department of GOI to approve the functioning of SOTTO from SCB Medical College, CUTTACK and thus SOTTO has started functioning at Cuttack since Sept. 2019.
11. GOVt has accorded permission/registration to seven hospitals on dt. 17.12.2019, including SCB Medical College to perform Deceased Donor Transplantation.
12. The 4th February 2020 is a red letter day for ODISHA Transplatation in general and MOTHER in particular
when the first Deceased Donor Transplatation of Kidney was performed in both Apollo Hospital, Bhubaneswar and SCB Medical Collage, Cuttack. The same was followed by to more cases of Deceased Donor Transplantation
within the next month.
13. As a Second frontier, MOTHER took up with Govt.
of Odisha to establish Human Milk Bank in Odisha. The same has been approved to be established at CAPITAL HOSPITAL, Bhubaneswar, SCB MEdical Collage and M.KCG Medical College, Berhampur. The Human Milk Bank has been inaugurated in the capital Hospital on 09.03.2022
1. In 2016 MOTHER produced
a short film in Odia, named "SPANDAN"(with sub-title in English) to popularise the organ donation. The same has been adjudged as the best short film by the Culture Department of Govt. of Odisha.
2. With the assistant of rupees 2 lakh by Govt. of India through NOTTO/ROTTO, Kolkata MOTHER organised a five day training program for Transplant coordinator at Bhubaneswar in March 2017.
Provision of opetion for Organ Donation in the driving licence application form.